The exact cause of nasal polyps is still largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that the immune system and an impaired epithelial barrier may play a role in promoting chronic inflammation seen in these cases.1

The role of type 2 inflammation

Nasal polyps are believed to be associated with an abnormal immune response.2 About 80% of people living with nasal polyps exhibit type 2 inflammation, marked by eosinophilia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers in their mucous membrane.3-5 This type of inflammation is also seen in other inflammatory conditions such as asthma and eczema (atopic dermatitis).6

While treatments like nasal sprays, steroids, and surgery can oer relief, their eects may be temporary. This is largely because these treatments do not target the underlying type 2 inflammation associated with nasal polyps.6–8 Moreover, recurrence is a significant concern, with over half of those who have had surgery experiencing a regrowth of nasal polyps and a return of their symptoms.8,9

Conditions associated with nasal polyps

CRSwNP is often associated with other important medical conditions that can influence disease severity.1 These conditions include asthma, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and aspirin sensitivity.1,2,10 Asthma is the most common comorbid disease in individuals with CRSwNP, affecting up to 66.7% of this population.11

1. Stevens WW, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016;4:565-72.
2. World Allergy Organization. Nasal polyposis: A multifactorial disease. Available at: Accessed on April 2023.
3. Hopkins C, et al. N Engl J Med 2019; 381:55-63.
4. Chaaban MR, et al. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013;27:473-478.
5. Wang W, et al. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019;9:149-157.
6. Bachert C, et al. Lancet 2019;394:1638-1650.
7. Gandhi NA, et al. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2016;15:35-50.
8. Bachert C, Gevaert E. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:1277-1283.
9. Bassiouni A, Wormald PJ. Laryngoscope 2013;123:36-41.
10. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Nasal Polyps. Available at: Accessed on April 2023.
11. Khan A, et al. Rhinology 2019;57:32-42.

The health information contained herein is provided for general educational purposes only. Your healthcare professional is the single best source of information regarding your health. Please consult your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your health or treatment.